Last modified: 2014-11-02

#### Abstract

3D printing and other layer manufacturing processes are challenged by dimensional accuracy. Several techniques are used to validate and calibrate dimensional accuracy through the complete building envelope. The validation process involves the growing and measuring of a shape with known parameters. The measured result is compared with the intended digital model. Processes with the risk of deformation after time or post processing may find this technique beneficial. We propose to use objects from algebraic geometry as test shapes. A cubic surface is given as the zero set of a 3rd degree polynomial with 3 variables. A class of cubics in real 3D space contains exactly 27 real lines. We provide a library for the computer algebra system Singular which, from 6 given points in the plane, constructs a cubic and the lines on it. A surface shape derived from a cubic offers simplicity to the dimensional comparison process, in that the straight lines and many other features can be analytically determined and easily measured using non-digital equipment. For example, the surface contains so-called Eckhard points, in each of which three of the lines intersect, and also other intersection points of pairs of lines. Distances between these intersection points can easily be measured, since the points are connected by straight lines. At all intersection points of lines, angles can be verified. Hence, many features distributed over the build volume are known analytically, and can be used for the validation process. Due to the thin shape geometry the material required to produce an algebraic surface is minimal. This paper is the first in a series that proposes the process chain to first define a cubic with a configuration of lines in a given print volume and then to develop the point cloud for the final manufacturing. Simple measuring techniques are recommended.

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