SUNConferences, 29th Annual Conference of SAIIE

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Whisper Maisiri, Liezl van Dyk

Last modified: 2018-10-09


The first three industrial revolutions, namely Industry 1.0 (mechanization), Industry 2.0 (mass production through electrification) and Industry 3.0 (automation), lasted several hundreds of years. Now the era of Industry 4.0 (the fourth industrial revolution) has come. Industry 4.0 encompasses a paradigm shift from automated systems to intelligent systems, with the objective being to optimize and achieve sustainable systems. Industry 4.0 is becoming standard practice in developed countries. In contrast, developing countries still have to catch up with the industrial revolution phases that have played out in developed countries already. This presents a leapfrogging opportunity for developing countries to go straight into Industry 4.0. The impact of this could be far-reaching, as it could enable developing countries to attain the goal of inclusive and sustainable industrial development. The purpose of this article is to critically investigate the opportunities and challenges of Industry 4.0 for developed and developing countries using the private and public health sector as a point of investigation. The article presents a comprehensive literature review on Industry 4.0 focusing on healthcare systems. Applying this to the private and public healthcare sectors could aid the identification of leapfrogging opportunities beyond the healthcare industry.

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